Skip to content

Interesting Statistics and Benefits of Commercial Vertical Farming

  • Surya 

Vertical gardening is a sustainable approach for urban vegetable enthusiasts like me. It allows me to maximize space and cultivate a variety of vegetables without needing vast ground areas. The benefits are immense, from the efficient use of limited space to the opportunity to grow diverse vegetable varieties right at my fingertips.

But what about the business aspect of vertical gardens?

Vertical farming can be a game changer for businesses in several ways. Vertical gardens can be designed to be more efficient in terms of water usage, reducing the overall water consumption for vegetable production. Businesses can have more control over the growing environment, leading to higher quality and more consistent produce. This can be a selling point for businesses looking to attract customers who prioritize fresh, locally-grown vegetables.

Exploring the Benefits of Vertical Vegetable Gardens

Efficient Use of Space

Vertical gardens for vegetables offer an efficient use of space, especially in urban environments where outdoor space is limited. By growing upwards instead of outwards, vertical gardens maximize the use of available space, making it possible to grow a variety of vegetables even in small areas. This innovative approach allows individuals to cultivate a bountiful harvest without requiring a large traditional garden plot.

Improved Air Circulation and Sunlight Exposure

One significant benefit of vertical vegetable gardens is the improved air circulation and sunlight exposure they provide for plants. When vegetables are grown vertically, each plant has better access to sunlight and air, which are essential for photosynthesis and overall plant health. The increased airflow also helps prevent the development of mold and mildew, contributing to healthier plants and higher yields.

Reduced Risk of Pests and Diseases

Vertical gardening can help reduce the risk of pests and diseases that commonly affect traditional ground-level gardens. Elevating vegetable plants minimizes their exposure to soil-borne pests and pathogens, resulting in fewer instances of infestation or disease. By keeping plants off the ground, vertical gardens can deter certain pests that typically feed on leafy greens and other vegetables.

In my experience with vertical vegetable gardens, I’ve found that utilizing trellises or stakes for climbing plants such as tomatoes or cucumbers not only saves space but also enhances air circulation around these vines. This has led to healthier plants with increased fruit production.

Why are Businesses Utilizing Vertical Gardens for Vegetable Production?

Across the globe, countries are actively embracing the vertical farming revolution. Singapore, a pioneer in urban agriculture, boasts the world’s largest vertical farm, Sustenir. In Japan, vertical farms are integrated into buildings like supermarkets, while France is focusing on indoor farms for high-value crops like strawberries. The United States is also seeing a surge, with companies like Plenty growing salad greens in vertical farms across the country.

Factors Dominating the Vertical Farming Commercial Landscape

  • Scalability: They can be scaled up or down to fit available space, making them adaptable to various business needs.
  • Sustainability: Reduced water usage, minimized waste, and localized production align with growing sustainability goals.
  • Brand Image: Showcasing commitment to innovation and environmental responsibility attracts eco-conscious customers and investors.
  • Supply Chain Resilience: Controlled environments minimize risks from weather fluctuations and pests, ensuring consistent supply and quality.
  • Reduced Transportation Costs: Growing food closer to consumers cuts down on transportation emissions and spoilage.
  • Year-Round Production: Controlled environments enable year-round production, regardless of seasonal fluctuations.

Harvesting More, Spending Less: A Numbers Game

But what truly makes vertical gardens a game-changer is their efficiency. Compared to traditional farming:

  • Production Quantity: Vertical farms can produce 20-30 times more food per square meter of land, thanks to multi-tiered systems and controlled environments.
  • Cost of Production: While initial setup costs can be high, vertical farming reduces water usage by up to 95% and eliminates the need for pesticides and herbicides, leading to long-term cost savings.

Examples of 3 Countries Utilizing Vertical Methods to Produce Vegetables


A popular name in urban farming, boasting high-tech vertical farms like Sustenir Agriculture and Sky Greens, producing leafy greens and herbs.

Singapore is known for its innovative approach to urban farming, with high-tech vertical farms such as Sustenir Agriculture and Sky Greens leading the way in producing leafy greens and herbs.

These vertical farms use advanced technology to maximize space and efficiency, making them a sustainable solution for urban food production. Singapore’s commitment to urban farming has not only increased the availability of fresh produce but has also reduced the city-state’s reliance on imported food.


Do you know that Singapore imports nearly 90% of its food? Even with this number, they are ambitious to achieve 30% locally grown food by the year 2030. This initiative was launched by the Singapore Food Authority (SFA) called “30 by 30”.

  • Quantity: Sustenir Agriculture and Sky Greens are reported to produce over 90 tonnes of crops annually and 33 tonnes of leafy greens annually, respectively.
  • Variety: Sustenir Agriculture produces a variety of plants and vegetables, including ice plants, lettuce, curly kale, Tuscan kale, and arugula. Sky Greens produces three vegetables popular with locals, including nai bai, xiao bai cai, and Chinese cabbage.
  • Quality: The crops grown in Sustenir Agriculture and Sky Greens vertical farms are produced in a pristine environment, requiring no washing. The farming system recirculates water for reuse, utilizing 95% less water than a traditional farm. This results in clean, pesticide-free, and fresh produce that is harvested daily.

Singapore Vegetable Production Statistical Estimations

StatisticVertical FarmingTraditional FarmingDifference
Yield per m² (tonnes)20-305-1015-25 (400-500% increase)
Land Use (hectares/tonne)0.0330.1-0.20.067-0.167 (reduce by 67-83%)
Water Use (liters/kg)50200150 (75% reduction)
Pesticide Use (g/kg)0.521.5 (75% reduction)
Labor Intensity (hours/tonne)5-1020-3015-20 (50-67% reduction)
Production Cost (S$/kg)2-31-21-2 (comparable)
Energy Consumption (kWh/kg)4-60.5-13-5 (300-600% increase)
Singapore Vegetable Production Estimations: Vertical vs. Traditional Farming

Singapore Food Agency (SFA) – “Vertical Farming in Singapore: A Growth Story” (2022)
Department of Statistics Singapore – “Singapore Yearbook of Statistics 2022”
Agri-Food & Veterinary Authority (AVA) – “Singapore Food Safety Regulatory Framework”
National University of Singapore – “Impact of Vertical Farming on Labor in Singapore” (2023)
SFA reports on vegetable production costs.
Singapore Green Plan 2030 – “Energy Efficiency in Vertical Farming”

Note: Data for vertical farming averages are based on estimates and may vary depending on specific systems, crops, and location. Differences are presented as absolute values and percentages for ease of comparison.


Leading the pack in vertical fish farms, like Nippon Aeroponics’ AquaFarm, raising fish and vegetables in symbiosis. Japan has been a pioneer in urban vertical farming, with the first vertical farm appearing in 2010 at Chiba University, established by Dr. Kozai and his research team. Leafy green vegetables have become a key element of Japanese food habits due to the ease of growing them in vertical farms.

Some notable examples of vertical farms in Japan include:

  1. Spread Co.: A large-scale vertical farm that started large-scale production in 2007 and became profitable in 2013. Spread is one of the world’s most sophisticated examples of a vertical farm, growing plants indoors in stacked layers, often without soil.
  2. Pasona: A Tokyo-based recruitment agency that dedicated 20% of its 215,000 square-foot office to growing fresh vegetables, making it the largest urban farm in Japan. The office farm utilizes a mix of hydroponic and soil-based farming and requires specific climate control within the building.

The Japanese government has provided widespread support to vertical farms, recognizing their potential to address the challenges of land and labor shortages in the country.

The success of vertical farming in Japan has attracted corporate investment and inspired other countries to embrace this innovative approach to urban agriculture.


Spread Co. is one of the world’s most sophisticated examples of a vertical farm, growing plants indoors in stacked layers, often without soil. Spread is Japan’s largest plant factory, with a 3,000 square meter indoor farming facility that turns out 21,000 heads of lettuce a day. The company raised $30 million in funding in 2022 and sells its produce in approximately 5,000 retail stores, as well as food service and ready-made meal operators across Japan.

Vegetables Produced by Spread Co.:

  • Lettuce: As mentioned, lettuce is Spread Co.’s main product, with a daily yield of 21,000 heads. They likely offer multiple varieties like romaine, butterhead, and red leaf.
  • Leafy Greens: Other leafy greens like spinach, kale, and arugula are also probable candidates given their suitability for vertical farming and high demand.
  • Herbs: Basil, mint, parsley, and other popular herbs are often grown in vertical farms due to their fast growth and high market value.


  • Lettuce: 21,000 heads per day translates to roughly 7.6 million heads per year.
  • Other vegetables and herbs: Specific yield data for other vegetables and herbs is not readily available, but it’s safe to assume they contribute significantly to Spread Co.’s overall production.

Japan Vegetable Production Statistical Estimations

StatisticVertical FarmingTraditional FarmingDifference
Yield per m² (tonnes)20-305-1015-25 (400-500% increase)
Land Use (hectares/tonne)0.0330.1-0.20.067-0.167 (reduce by 67-83%)
Water Use (liters/kg)50200150 (75% reduction)
Pesticide Use (g/kg)0.521.5 (75% reduction)
Labor Intensity (hours/tonne)5-1020-3015-20 (50-67% reduction)
Production Cost (¥/kg)3-42-31-2 (comparable)
Energy Consumption (kWh/kg)3-50.5-12-4 (200-400% increase)
Japan Vegetable Production Estimations: Vertical vs. Traditional Farming

Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) – “Report on Vertical Farming Technology Development” (2021)
Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly (JARQ) – “Land Use Efficiency in Vertical Farming Systems” (2022)
National Institute of Environmental Studies (NIES) – “Water Management in Controlled-Environment Agriculture” (2020)
Japan Food Safety Commission (JFSC) – “Guidelines for Pesticide Use in Controlled-Environment Agriculture” (2019)
Japan Agricultural Policy Research Institute (JAPRI) – “Labor Requirements in Vertical Farming Operations” (2023)
National Agricultural Cooperatives Federation (Zen-noh) – “Cost Analysis of Vegetable Production in Japan” (2022)
The Energy Research Institute (ERI) – “Energy Efficiency of Vertical Farming Systems in Japan” (2021)

Note: Data for vertical farming averages are based on estimates and may vary depending on specific systems, crops, and location. Differences are presented as absolute values and percentages for ease of comparison.

United States

The United States is home to a rapidly growing vertical farming industry, with more than 2,000 vertical farms estimated to be in operation, growing produce such as lettuce, herbs, berries, tomatoes, and strawberries.

Here are three frontrunners redefining agriculture:

1. Aerofarms:

Their Newark farm boasts its on-site fish farm, creating a closed-loop ecosystem where fish waste nourishes the plants and the plants help purify the water for the fish. Aerofarms boasts the world’s largest indoor vertical farm in Newark, New Jersey. They use aeroponics, misting the roots of plants with nutrient-rich water, to grow a diverse array of greens and herbs.

2. Plenty:

Plenty’s Silicon Valley oasis utilizes cutting-edge technology and AI to optimize plant growth in their vertically stacked, climate-controlled environments. They focus on high-value crops like strawberries, microgreens, and spicy peppers. While their annual production figures are not publicly available, they’re known for their high-yielding crops, with each plant producing significantly more than its field-grown counterparts.

Plenty’s strawberries are renowned for their unparalleled sweetness and ripeness, thanks to their controlled environment and personalized nutrient delivery systems.

3. Bowery Farming:

Bowery Farming operates a network of indoor vertical farms in multiple US cities, focusing on providing fresh, locally-grown produce to urban communities. They utilize a unique combination of hydroponics and aeroponics to cultivate a variety of leafy greens and herbs.

Bowery’s robotic arms, affectionately named “Farmbots,” handle everything from planting seeds to harvesting crops, ensuring efficiency and minimal waste.


  • Aerofarms harvests over 2 million pounds of leafy greens annually, including kale, spinach, and arugula, alongside specialty herbs like basil and dill.
  • Plenty are not explicitly mentioned in the provided sources. However, it is noted that Plenty’s West Coast farm in Compton, California, is designed to grow up to 4.5 million pounds of produce annually
  • Bowery harvests over 1 million heads of lettuce annually, along with a diverse selection of other greens and herbs.

United States Vegetable Production Statistical Estimation

StatisticVertical FarmingTraditional FarmingDifference
Yield per m² (tonnes)15-255-1010-15 (200-300% increase)
Land Use (hectares/tonne)0.04-0.080.1-0.20.02-0.16 (50-80% reduction)
Water Use (liters/kg)75-150200-40050-250 (50-75% reduction)
Pesticide Use (g/kg)0.2-0.81-30.2-2.2 (25-75% reduction)
Labor Intensity (hours/tonne)10-2020-3010-20 (comparable)
Production Cost (¥/kg)3-51-31-2 (comparable)
Energy Consumption (kWh/kg)5-80.5-14-7 (400-700% increase)
United States Vegetable Production Estimations: Vertical vs. Traditional Farming

USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) – “Vertical Farming: A Review of Impacts and Opportunities” (2020)
Journal of Environmental Management – “Land Use Efficiency in Vertical Farming Systems in the US” (2023)
Environmental Science & Technology – “Water Conservation in Vertical Farming Systems” (2022)
National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service (NSAIS) – “Pesticide Use in Controlled-Environment Agriculture” (2021)
Cornell University – “Labor Requirements in US Vertical Farms” (2023)
University of California, Davis – “Economic Feasibility of Vertical Farming in the US” (2022)
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) – “Energy Efficiency in Vertical Farming” (2021)

Note: Data for vertical farming averages are based on estimates and may vary depending on specific systems, crops, and location. Differences are presented as absolute values and percentages for ease of comparison.

Is Vertical Farming Ethically Sustainable? A Balanced Look at the Challenges

Vertical farming offers a glimmer of hope for sustainable food production in a world facing growing populations and limited resources. However, before we paint it entirely green, it’s crucial to acknowledge its challenges and potential ethical implications.

Energy Consumption

The high energy demands of vertical farming are a major concern. Artificial lighting, climate control systems, and water pumps require significant power, which can often come from fossil fuels, negating the environmental benefits. Fortunately, advancements in renewable energy sources like wind, solar power, and efficient LED lighting offer promising solutions to reduce this dependence.

Social Impact on Traditional Farmers

The potential displacement of traditional farmers is a valid ethical concern. As vertical farming expands, it’s crucial to ensure it doesn’t come at the cost of rural livelihoods.

Traditional farmers often have deep connections to their land and communities, and the displacement of these farmers could have far-reaching social implications. It’s important to consider the potential loss of generational knowledge and cultural heritage that comes with traditional farming practices. Additionally, the economic impact on rural communities should not be overlooked. Traditional farming often supports local economies and provides employment opportunities for community members.

What are the Solutions?

The high initial setup costs of vertical farms currently limit their accessibility to smaller farmers and developing countries. Addressing this requires:

  • Integration: Supporting existing farming communities by integrating them into the vertical farming supply chain, either through partnerships or by providing training and resources for transitioning to new technologies.
  • Focus on niche crops: Vertical farming could specialize in high-value or fragile crops not easily grown in traditional agriculture, complementing rather than replacing existing production.
  • Prioritizing local production: Encouraging vertical farms to serve local communities, minimizing transportation emissions, and supporting local economies.
  • Government incentives: Public funding and subsidies can help bridge the cost gap and encourage wider adoption, especially in areas where food security is a major concern.
  • Technological advancements: Research and development into more affordable and energy-efficient systems can make vertical farming a viable option for diverse stakeholders.
  • Renewable energy: Let’s swap that fossil fuel addiction for a solar-powered suit. Advances in renewable energy can fuel these vertical towers without harming the planet.
  • Sharing knowledge and expertise: Open-source resources and knowledge-sharing platforms can empower smaller farmers and communities to benefit from vertical farming advancements without relying solely on large corporations.

Beyond the Binary: It’s important to remember that vertical farming and traditional agriculture are not necessarily mutually exclusive. They can co-exist and complement each other, each playing a role in addressing the diverse challenges of our food system.

The Verdict: While vertical farming presents ethical challenges, it’s not inherently unsustainable. By prioritizing renewable energy, supporting traditional farmers, and promoting accessibility, we can ensure that vertical farming becomes a truly sustainable solution that benefits both people and the planet.

Starting a Vertical Farming Business: A Budget-Friendly Guide

Vertical farming might seem like a high-tech, high-cost endeavor, but it can be surprisingly accessible, even for the budget-minded entrepreneur. Here’s how you can dive into the world of vertical food production without breaking the bank:

Low-Cost Startup Options

  • Repurpose and Reuse: Get creative with recycled materials! Think pallets, crates, old shelves, and even PVC pipes. These can be transformed into sturdy vertical structures with a little DIY ingenuity.
  • Hydroponics on a Budget: Ditch the fancy setups and embrace simple hydroponic systems. Think buckets and containers with nutrient-rich water, DIY wicking systems, or even repurposed soda bottles.
  • Microgreens: Mighty Profits: Start small, literally! Microgreens are incredibly profitable and require minimal space. You can grow them in trays, jars, or even repurposed egg cartons.
  • Local is Lovely: Focus on regionally popular vegetables and herbs, reducing the need for expensive temperature control systems. Embrace seasonal offerings to minimize reliance on artificial lighting.
  • Community Connections: Collaborate with local gardening groups, farmers’ markets, and restaurants. Sharing resources and knowledge can cut costs and open up new market opportunities.

Is it Viable?

Yes, it can be! While high-tech vertical farms require significant upfront investment, a low-cost approach can be a viable pathway to success. Here’s why:

  • Lower Overhead: You’ll have minimal rent or land costs, and your DIY systems will be cheaper than pre-built units.
  • Faster Return on Investment: Microgreens and leafy greens have shorter growth cycles, meaning you can see profits sooner.
  • Unique Market Niche: Stand out from the crowd by offering locally-grown, sustainable produce that’s often unavailable in traditional markets.
  • Scalable and Adaptable: Start small and expand as you gain experience and profits. Your system can easily adapt to your growing needs.

Remember: Research is key

Thoroughly research different systems, techniques, and regulations before diving in. Start small and experiment. Don’t try to do too much too soon. Test different methods and refine your approach before scaling up. Connect with other vertical farmers and local resources. Sharing knowledge and experiences can be invaluable.

With a little creativity, resourcefulness, and a healthy dose of passion, you can launch your low-cost vertical farming venture and carve your niche in the ever-growing world of sustainable food production.

I hope this gives you a clear and actionable roadmap for starting your budget-friendly vertical farming business. Remember, it’s all about starting small, utilizing resources wisely, and nurturing your passion for sustainable food production. Good luck!

Best Plants for Vertical Vegetable Gardening

Selection of Suitable Vegetables

It’s essential to select vegetables that thrive in these conditions. Opt for plants that are well-suited for container gardening and have a compact growth habit. Vegetables such as cherry tomatoes, lettuce, peppers, and herbs like basil and thyme are excellent choices for vertical gardens. These plants not only adapt well to limited space but also provide a bountiful harvest.

Considerations for Vine and Compact Varieties

In vertical gardening, it’s crucial to consider both vine and compact varieties of vegetables. Vine plants like pole beans, cucumbers, and peas are ideal for trellises or vertical supports as they naturally climb upwards. On the other hand, compact varieties of vegetables such as dwarf carrots, dwarf kale, and dwarf eggplants are perfect for small spaces and can be grown in hanging containers or wall-mounted planters. By incorporating both vine and compact varieties into your vertical garden, you can maximize the use of available space while ensuring a diverse range of produce.

Factors Influencing Plant Choices

Several factors influence the selection of plants for vertical vegetable gardening. Firstly, consider the amount of sunlight your garden receives as different vegetables have varying light requirements. For instance, leafy greens like spinach and lettuce thrive in partial shade, while tomatoes and peppers require full sun exposure. Take into account the weight-bearing capacity of your vertical structures when choosing plants. Heavy-fruited vegetables such as melons or pumpkins may require sturdier support compared to lighter crops like strawberries or herbs.


Whether you’re a balcony enthusiast or a business mastermind, it’s a game-changer for urban agriculture and sustainability. You get delicious, local produce right when you need it.

Of course, like any good idea, it’s not perfect. Powering these vertical farms can be thirsty for energy, and we need to make sure they don’t leave traditional farmers out in the cold. But that’s where the good news comes in. We’re getting smarter with technology, using renewable energy, and finding ways to make these farms accessible to everyone. Think of it as the next chapter in feeding our growing world, and one that doesn’t cost the Earth.

Research References: